In modern life, electric cargo bikes have gradually become the first choice for people to travel, and the core of electric vehicles is batteries. Different battery types have different impacts on the performance of electric vehicles. In the market, sodium and lithium batteries are currently the two highly discussed batteries, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. In this article, I will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of sodium and lithium batteries from three dimensions: lifespan, endurance, and price, in order to help users better choose the right electric vehicle battery for themselves.
Sodium battery vs lithium battery: service life
The positive electrode material of sodium batteries is sodium ions, while the negative electrode material often uses transition metal compounds such as iron chloride (FeCl3) and carbon materials. The positive and negative reactions of sodium batteries occur in liquid electrolytes, and the electrolyte is prone to decomposition when the number of cycles is high. Therefore, the cycle life is limited, with some reaching 3000 cycles.
The positive and negative electrode materials of lithium batteries are lithium ions, carbon, metal oxides, etc. The positive and negative electrodes of lithium batteries are solid materials, and reactions can occur within the material body. For example, the cycle life of lithium iron phosphate is about 3000 times, and the cycle life of ternary lithium batteries is about 2000 times.
So, there is a certain difference in the cycle life between sodium batteries and lithium batteries, but it is not significant. With the continuous development of sodium electronic technology, the cycle life of sodium ion batteries will gradually increase, and may even exceed that of lithium batteries. Therefore, if we do not consider other aspects and only consider the service life, both are good.
Sodium battery vs lithium battery: range
At present, sodium ion batteries are still in an unknown stage, as there are relatively few such cars and electric vehicles, most of which are still in the conceptual stage and have not been mass-produced. However, from a theoretical perspective, compared to lithium batteries, sodium batteries have a relatively low energy density and are currently mainly used in energy storage, automotive and other fields. The field of electric two wheeled bikes is also actively expanding.
Compared to sodium ion batteries, lithium batteries have a higher energy density and can store more electricity. Moreover, the technology of lithium batteries is relatively mature, making them more widely used in electric vehicles. At present, most intelligent electric bicycles on the market use lithium batteries, and electric motorcycles equipped with lithium batteries will have a longer range.
Due to the high energy density of lithium batteries, their performance in terms of battery life is more outstanding. However, due to the relatively low technical level of sodium batteries and their low energy density, there is still room for improvement in battery life, although they are still better than lead-acid batteries.
Sodium battery vs lithium battery: market price
Due to the relatively low maturity of sodium battery technology, the cost of sodium batteries is relatively high. However, the main raw materials for sodium batteries are sodium, electrolyte, and other materials, among which sodium element is relatively easy to obtain and the price is relatively low. Therefore, in theory, the price of sodium batteries should not be high. However, due to the lack of mature sodium battery technology and the absence of mass-produced vehicles, the price is still uncertain.
The main raw materials for lithium batteries are lithium, positive electrode materials, negative electrode materials, and electrolytes, among which the price of lithium element is relatively high, so the cost of raw materials for lithium batteries is relatively high. However, the manufacturing process of lithium batteries is relatively mature, coupled with the rapid development of the electric vehicle market in recent years, the scale of lithium battery production is gradually expanding, and the price of lithium batteries may decrease in the future.
Overall, the cost of sodium ion batteries is relatively low, so the comprehensive cost-effectiveness advantage of electric vehicles equipped with sodium ion batteries is more obvious. However, there is currently no real sodium tram, so it is all based on theoretical cost-effectiveness.
Overall, both sodium and lithium batteries have their own advantages and disadvantages. When choosing electric vehicle batteries, it is necessary to comprehensively consider one’s travel needs, as well as factors such as electric vehicle performance and price, to make the most suitable choice for oneself. Of course, with the continuous progress of technology, the future electric vehicle battery market will also continue to change. We also hope that electric vehicle batteries can continuously improve their performance and service life, bringing more convenient and comfortable experiences for people to travel